The Parisians — Volume 11
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In his letter to Archbishop William of Sens , St.
by De Balzac, H trans. Ives, G
Thomas ti Becket de- clares himself ready to submit his difference with the King of England to the judgment of the scholars at Paris. The long episcopate of Maurice de Sully , the son of a simple serf, was marked by the consecra- tion of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame see below and the journey to Paris of Pope Alexander III 1 Hughes de Monceaux, Abbot of St-Germain, requested the pope to consecrate the monastery church. Mau- rice de Sully, Bishop of Paris, having accompanied the pope to the ceremony, was invited by the abbot to withdraw, and Alexander III declared in a sermon, afterwards confirmed by a Bull, thenceforth the Church of St-Germain-des-Pr6s was dependent only on the Roman pontiff, and subsequently conferred on the abbot a number of episcopal prerogatives.
In time the Abbey of St-Germain became the centre of a bourg, the inhabitants of which were granted munici- pal freedom by Abbot Hughes de Alonceaux about Eudes de Sully , the successor of Maurice, courageously oppo. Philip II was a benefactor of Paris, and the university was founded during his reign See Paris, University of. The thirteenth century, and especially the reign of St. Louis, was a period of great industrial and commercial prosperity for Paris, as is shown by the "Livre des Mestiers" of Etienne Boileau and the" invectives of Petrarch.
Bishop Guillaunie d'Auvergne received from St. Louis the. This page needs to be proofread.
Barthdlemy and Magloire, which was celebrated at the beginning of the Capctian period, and was dependent on the Abbey of Maniuiuliers see TouHs. Category : Not proofread. Views Read Edit View history. Once the Occupation had begun, they started to return.
By July 7, the city government estimated the population had risen again to 1. At the beginning of , it fell again, because of air raids by the Allies, the arrest and deportation of Jews and foreigners, and the forced departure to factories in Germany of many young Frenchmen, as part of the Service du travail obligatoire STO , "Obligatory Work Service". The attitude of the Parisians toward the occupiers varied greatly. Some saw the Germans as an easy source of money; others, as the Prefect of the Seine, Roger Langeron arrested on 23 June , commented, "looked at them as if they were invisible or transparent.
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The Party also asked that workers resume work in the armaments factories, which were now producing for the Germans. Many individual communists opposed the Nazis, but the ambivalent official attitude of the Party lasted until Operation Barbarossa , the German attack on the Soviet Union on June 22, A curfew was in effect from nine in the evening until five in the morning; at night, the city went dark. The French press and radio broadcast only German propaganda. The beginning of the STO, the program that required large number of young Frenchmen to work in factories for the German war industry, in exchange for the return of older and sick French prisoners of war in Germany, greatly increased the resentment of the French population against the Germans.follow site
The Parisians — Volume 11 - eBook
Most Parisians, however, only expressed their anger and frustrations in private, while the police of Paris, under German control, received every day hundreds of anonymous denunciations by Parisians against other Parisians. Line outside a Paris bakery in spring The liberation did not end the food shortages. Imperial War Museums, U. Potatoes and leeks on sale in a Paris market.
There was little else to buy. Spring Imperial War Museums, U. Finding food soon became the first preoccupation of the Parisians. The authorities of the German occupation transformed French industry and agriculture into a machine for serving Germany. Shipments to Germany had first priority; what was left went to Paris and the rest of France. All of the trucks manufactured at the Citroen factory went directly to Germany. Later many of these trucks were cleverly sabotaged by the French workers, who recalibrated the dip sticks so that the trucks would run out of oil without notice.
The Parisians — Volume 11
The greatest share of shipments of meat, wheat, milk produce and other agricultural products also went to Germany. Products could be bought only upon presentation of coupons attributed to specific items and on the specific week in which they could be used. Parisians and all the population of France were divided into seven categories depending upon their age, and allotted a certain amount of each product each month.
A new bureaucracy, employing more than nine thousand city employees, with offices at all schools and the city hall of each arrondissement , was put into place to administer the program. The system resulted in long lines and frustrated hopes, since promised products often never appeared.
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Thousands of Parisians regularly made the long journey by bicycle to the countryside, hoping to come back, with vegetables, fruit, eggs and other farm products. The rationing system also applied to clothing: leather was reserved exclusively for German army boots, and vanished completely from the market. Leather shoes were replaced by shoes made of rubber or canvas raffia with wooden soles. A variety of ersatz or substitute products appeared, which were not exactly what they were called: ersatz wine, coffee made with chicory , tobacco and soap. Finding coal for heat in winter was another preoccupation.
The Germans had transferred the authority over the coal mines of northern France from Paris to their military headquarters in Brussels. The priority for the coal that did arrive in Paris was for the use in factories. Even with ration cards, adequate coal for heating was almost impossible to find. Supplies for normal heating needs were not restored until Paris restaurants were open but had to deal with strict regulations and shortages.
Meat could only be served on certain days, and certain products, such as cream, coffee and fresh produce were extremely rare.
Nonetheless, the restaurants found ways to serve their regular clients. For five hundred francs one could conquer a good pork chop, hidden under cabbage and served without the necessary tickets, along with a liter of Beaujolais and a real coffee; sometimes it was on the first floor at rue Dauphine, where you could listen to the BBC while sitting next to Picasso. The restrictions and shortage of goods led to the existence of a thriving black market. Producers and distributors of food and other scarce products set aside a portion of their goods for the black market, and used middle-men to sell them to customers.
Parisians bought cigarettes, meat, coffee, wine and other products which frequently neither the middle-man nor the customer had ever seen. Horse-drawn coaches in front of the National Assembly, decorated with slogan: "Germany is winning on all fronts" Bundesarchiv. The pedi-cab, or bicycle taxi, was still in use in the spring of Imperial War Museums, U. Due to the shortage of fuel, the number of automobiles on the Paris streets dropped from , before the war to just under 4, Older means of transportation, such as the horse-drawn fiacre came back into service.
Trucks and automobiles that did circulate often used gazogene, a poor-quality fuel carried in a tank on the roof, or coal gas or methane, extracted from the Paris sewers. The metro ran, but service was frequently interrupted and the cars were overcrowded. Three thousand five hundred buses had run on the Paris streets in , but only five hundred were still running in the autumn of Bicycle-taxis became popular, and their drivers charged a high tariff. Bicycles became the means of transport for many Parisians, and their price soared; a used bicycle cost a month's salary.
The transportation problems did not end with the liberation of Paris; the shortage of gasoline and lack of transport continued until well after the war. One of the greatest art thefts in history took place in Paris during the Occupation, as the Nazis looted the art of Jewish collectors on a grand scale.
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The German Army was respectful of the Hague Conventions of and and refused to transfer the works in French museums out of the country, but the Nazi leaders were not so scrupulous. On 30 June , Hitler ordered that all art works in France, public and private, should be "safeguarded".
Many of the French wealthy Jewish families had sent their art works out of France before leaving the country, but others had left their art collections behind. A new law decreed that those who had left France just before the war were no longer French citizens, and their property could be seized. The Gestapo began visiting bank vaults and empty residences, and collecting the works of art. The pieces left behind in the fifteen largest Jewish-owned art galleries in Paris were also collected, and transported in French police vans.
In September, a new organization, the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg was created to catalog and store the art. It was moved to the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume , a building in the Tuileries Gardens used by the Louvre for temporary exhibits. More than four hundred crates of art works were brought to the Jeu de Paume by Luftwaffe personnel, unpacked and cataloged. He selected twenty-seven paintings, including works by Rembrandt and Van Dyck owned by Edouard de Rothschild , as well as stained glass windows and furniture intended for Carinhall , the luxurious hunting lodge he had built in the Schorfheide Forest , in Germany.
Confiscations continued at banks, warehouses and private residences, with paintings, furniture, statues, clocks and jewelry accumulating at the Jeu de Paume , and filling the whole ground floor. The staff at the Jeu de Paume cataloged major collections. Between April and July , 4, cases of art works filling boxcars, were shipped from Paris to Germany. While some painters left Paris, many remained and continued working. Georges Braque returned to Paris in autumn and quietly continued working. Pablo Picasso spent most of in a villa in Royan , north of Bordeaux.
He returned to Paris and resumed working in his studio on rue des Grands Augustins. He frequently received visitors at his studio, including Germans, some admiring and some suspicious. German treasurer officials opened Picasso's bank vault, where he stored his private art collection, searching for Jewish-owned art they could seize.